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From 2015[update], Andorra, Monaco and San Marino negotiated an association agreement with the EU. Andorra`s ambassador to Spain, Jaume Gaytén, said he hoped the agreement would include provisions that would make states associated with the Schengen agreement. [114] The Schengen area initially had its legal base outside the European Economic Community at the time, since it was created by a subgroup of Community Member States with two international agreements: of the 27 EU Member States, 22 participate in the Schengen area. Of the five EU Member States that are not part of the Schengen area, four – Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus and Romania – are legally required to join the territory in the future, while the other – Ireland – maintains an opt-out. The four member states of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland, are not members of the EU, but have signed under the Schengen Agreement. Three European micro-states that are not members of the European Union, but which are enclaves or half-enclaves within an EU member state – Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City – are de facto part of the Schengen area. However, some third-country nationals are allowed to stay more than 90 days in the Schengen area without having to apply for a long-stay visa. For example, France does not require citizens of Andorra, Monaco, San Marino and Vatican City to apply for an extended residence visa. [252] In addition, Article 20, paragraph 2, of the Schengen Agreement continues to apply it “in exceptional circumstances” and bilateral agreements concluded by some signatory states with other countries prior to the convention`s entry into force. For example, New Zealand nationals can stay for up to 90 days in each of the Schengen countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland) which had already entered into bilateral visa-free agreements with the New Zealand government prior to the entry into force of the bilateral visa waiver agreement, without the need to apply for a long-term visa. but if you are travelling to other Schengen countries, the 90 days apply within 180 days. [253] [254] [255] [256] [257] [258] [259] [260] [262] [262] [263] [Excessive Quotes] December 1996, two non-EU states, Norway and Iceland, have signed an association agreement with the signatory states of the Schengen accession agreement.

Although this agreement never entered into force, the two countries were part of the Schengen area following similar agreements with the EU. [9] The Schengen Agreement itself was not signed by non-EU states. [10] In 2009, Switzerland officially concluded its accession to the Schengen area by adopting an association agreement by referendum in 2005. [11] Originally, the Schengen treaties and the rules adopted were officially independent of the EEC and its successor, the European Union (EU). In 1999, the Treaty of Amsterdam incorporated them into EU law, which codified Schengen into EU law and also introduced opt-outs for Ireland and the Kingdom, the latter having taken place since its withdrawal from the EU.

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